AbbKine takes you a comprehensive understanding of cytokines
What are cytokines?
Cytokine (CK) is composed of immune cells (such as monocytes, macrophages, T cells, B cells, NK cells, etc.) and certain non-immune cells (endothelial cells, epidermal cells, fibroblasts, etc.). A class of small molecular proteins (polypeptides or glycoproteins) that are synthesized and secreted by stimulation and have a wide range of biological activities.
The function and characteristics of cytokines
Cytokines have various functions such as regulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity, blood cell production, cell growth, and repairing damaged tissues. The research results of cytokines provide a scientific basis for clinical prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, especially the use of cytokine therapy Tumors, infections, hematopoietic dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, etc., have very broad application prospects.
a. Low molecular weight (glyco) protein: exists as a monomer. Small molecular weight (8-30KD)；
b. It usually acts on nearby cells or the cytokine producing cell itself in the form of paracrine or autocrine；
c. The same cytokine can be produced by different cells, and multiple cytokines can be produced by the same cell
d. Mainly related to regulating the body's immune response, hematopoietic function and inflammation;
e. High-potency effect, generally has obvious biological effect at pM (10-12M) level；f. Together with hormones, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters, it forms the intercellular signaling molecule system;
g. Multiple regulatory effects. The different regulatory effects of cytokines are related to their own concentration, the type of target cell and the types of other cytokines that exist at the same time.
Classification of cytokines
Autocrine: cytokines act on the cells that release it;
Paracrine: cytokines act on neighboring cells;
Endocrine: cytokines spread to distant areas (through blood or plasma) to affect different tissues.
a. Interleukin: more than 30 kinds of IL-1-IL-38 have been reported;
b. Tumor necrosis factor: according to its production source and structure, it can be divided into two categories: TNF- α and TNF- β;
c. Chemokines family: IL-8, GRO/MGSA, PF-4, CTAP-Ⅲ, ENA-78, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, MCP-1/MCAF, MCP-2, MCP-3；
d. Interferon: IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ;
e. Colony stimulating factors: G (granulocytes)-CSF, M (macrophages)-CSF, GM (granulocytes, macrophages)-CSF, Multi (multiple)-CSF (IL-3), SCF, EPO, etc.;
f. Transforming growth factor-β family: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TGFβ1β2 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), etc.;
g. Growth factors: EGF, PDGF, FGF, HGF, IGF-I, IGF-II, LIF, NGF, OSM, PDECGF, TGF-α, VEGF, etc.
How to choose the right cytokine
Select the appropriate expression system according to the research purpose and protein requirements.
|Research purposes||Protein requirements||Protein expression system|
|Used as an antigen to obtain specific antibodies for detection||Purity>80%, no need for protein modification or natural activity||
Prokaryotic expression system
|Study on Crystallization and Crystal structure of protein||The purity is > 95%, the protein content is > 10mg, and the concentration is usually at 10mg/ml||2/3 is the prokaryotic expression system, 1/3 is the insect cell expression system and mammalian cell expression system|
|Study on the function of protein||Need to maintain the natural activity of the protein||Prokaryotic soluble expression and eukaryotic expression system|
|Proteins used in drug research||It is generally required to keep the natural sequence as far as possible and have natural activity||
Eukaryotic expression system
Different expression systems have different advantages and disadvantages.
|Expression system||Advantages and disadvantages|
|Prokaryotic system||Low cost, high yield, but cannot be modified by glycosylation, easy to form inclusion bodies|
|Mammalian cell||The structure is closest to the natural protein, with modifications such as glycosylation, better activity, but lower expression level|
|Yeast Cell||Easy to operate, weak protein background, but there are problematic cells such as low yield and excessive glycosylation|
|Insect cell||The function is similar to the natural protein, the expression level is high, but the glycosylation degree is low, and the form is relatively simple|
Precautions for the use of cytokines
Cytokines are usually freeze-dried with the least amount of salt, so a small amount of cytokines will be deposited in the tube during the freeze-drying process, forming a thin or invisible protein layer. Therefore, we recommend that after receiving the product, be sure to centrifuge before opening the cap, so that the protein sticking to the tube cap or tube wall will accumulate at the bottom of the tube (it is normal to see the white precipitate at this time).
|Human IL-6 protein||PRP1012|
|Human TNF-alpha protein||PRP1013|
|Human IFN-gamma protein, His Tag||PRP1014|
|Rat EGF protein||PRP1211|
|Human Annexin V/ANXA5 protein||PRP3003|
|Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)||PRP3002|
|Mouse TGF beta 1 protein, His tag (Animal-Free)||PRP1017|
Cell and protein research tools
Abbkine focuses on the fields of proteinology and cytology, and is committed to the innovation and research and development of various antibodies, proteins, analytical reagents and kits, in order to become a key promoter in the development of life science research, drug development and other fields. We provide you with the favorite products of protein and immune research users, from basic immunological products, such as protein extraction and quantification, to internal reference label antibodies, primary antibodies and secondary antibodies for immunological experiments; the favorite products of cell research users, from Dyes and kits for detecting cell status, organelle extraction kits, cell substructure staining and tracking and cell metabolism detection products, to cytokine and protein detection kits for cell culture, just to help your research career !