Three minutes to take you through the problem of immunofluorescence
Immunofluorescence (IF) is a common experiment in immunology experiments. For the experimental masters, it may be the effort of sprinkling water, and a "dazzling and beautiful" film will come out, but for the novice operator, it may be in the overall process. It is not very friendly, and there will still be situations such as fluorescent bright spots in the entire cell sheet, or weak or no signal, too few stained cells, or only the blue light of DAPI in the observation field, and the target fluorescence has almost no or no signal. If so, it might be very frustrating. Today, let's walk into the world of immunofluorescence and see how to sort out our experiments.
Immunofluorescence is a technique established on the basis of immunology, biochemistry and microscopy. It is based on the principle of antigen-antibody reaction. First, a known antigen or antibody is labeled with a fluorescent group, and then the fluorescent antibody (or antigen) is used as a probe to check the corresponding antigen (or antibody) in cells or tissues. Fluorescence microscopy can be used to visualize the cells or tissues where the fluorescence is located, to determine the nature and localization of antigens or antibodies, and to determine the amount using quantitative techniques such as flow cytometry.
The experimental application of immunofluorescence is extremely wide, and it can determine various biologically active substances such as endocrine hormones, proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, neurotransmitters, receptors, cytokines, cell surface antigens, tumor markers, and blood drug concentrations. According to the diagnosis category, it can be further divided into infectious diseases, endocrine, tumors, drug testing, immunology, blood type identification, etc.
The main steps of immunofluorescence experiments include cell sheet preparation, fixation and permeabilization, blocking, antibody incubation, and fluorescence detection. The preparation of cell sheets (commonly known as cell crawling) is the first step in an immunofluorescence experiment. The quality of the cell sheet is crucial to the success of the experiment. The reason is very simple. If the cells fall off, everything will be out of the question.
4.Possible reasons for experimental errors
(1)Eg - Fluorescent bright spots appear throughout the cell sheet?
The reason may be that the secondary antibody concentration is too high, and the secondary antibody concentration can be appropriately adjusted according to the recommended dilution and titer ratio of the secondary antibody.
(2)Eg - weak or no signal, too few stained cells?
It may be that the target protein is not expressed in the cells, or the cells expressing the target protein are too few, and the cell permeability is poor
(3)Eg- There is only blue light of DAPI in the observation field, and the target fluorescence is almost no or very weak?
This phenomenon is likely because the proportion of antibody is too low, the concentration of antibody needs to be increased, and the concentration of secondary antibody can be increased; the excitation fluorescence intensity of confocal is not large enough.
Abbkine has developed related products suitable for immunofluorescence experiments, helping your IF experiments to be colorful!
IFKine™ series are the latest fluorophore and specially optimized secondary antibody products, which have stronger brightness, photostability, lower non-specific hybridization and background. The latest generation of IFKine™ fluorescent dye groups ensure the best fluorescence performance, donkey origin and adsorption through other species serum, make IFKine™ fluorescent secondary antibodies an ideal choice for fluorescent staining, especially in fluorescent multi-labeling experiments!
|Product Name||Catalog No||Size||Price/$|
|IFKine™ Green Donkey Anti-Mouse IgG||A24211||100μl/500μl||59/219|
|IFKine™ Green Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG||A24221||100μl/500μl||59/219|
|IFKine™ Green Donkey Anti-Goat IgG||A24231||100μl/500μl||59/219|
|IFKine™ Orange Donkey Anti-Mouse IgG||A24311||100μl/500μl||59/219|
|IFKine™ Red Donkey Anti-Mouse IgG||A24411||100μl/500μl||59/219|
|IFKine™ Red Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG||A24421||100μl/500μl||59/219|
|IFKine™ Red Donkey Anti-Goat IgG||A24431||100μl/500μl||59/219|
DyLight fluorescent dye is a new type of fluorescent dye with stronger fluorescence intensity and higher optical tolerance. Abbkine provides a full range of DyLight series of fluorescent secondary antibodies to meet the needs of most types of immunological experiments with higher specificity and diverse applications.
- Ease of use: Optimized packaging of liquid components for ease of use
- Cost-effective: small packages are highly probable, and large packages meet more needs
- High quality assurance: extremely low non-specific background, high specificity and sensitivity
- Wide spectrum selection: Full spectrum available from DyLight® 350 to DyLight® 80
|Product Name||Catalog No||Size||Price/$|
|DyLight 488, Goat Anti-Mouse IgG||A23210||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 488, Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG||A23220||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 488, Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG||A23230||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 488, Goat Anti-Rat IgG||A23240||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 549, Goat Anti-Mouse IgG||A23310||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 549, Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG||A23320||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 549, Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG||A23330||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 549, Goat Anti-Rat IgG||A23340||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 594, Goat Anti-Mouse IgG||A23410||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 594, Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG||A23420||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 594, Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG||A23430||100μl/500μl||39/149|
|Dylight 594, Goat Anti-Rat IgG||A23440||100μl/500μl||39/149|
Cell and protein research tools
Abbkine focuses on the fields of proteinology and cytology, and is committed to the innovation and research and development of various antibodies, proteins, analytical reagents and kits, in order to become a key promoter in the development of life science research, drug development and other fields. We provide you with the favorite products of protein and immune research users, from basic immunological products, such as protein extraction and quantification, to internal reference label antibodies, primary antibodies and secondary antibodies for immunological experiments; the favorite products of cell research users, from Dyes and kits for detecting cell status, organelle extraction kits, cell substructure staining and tracking and cell metabolism detection products, to cytokine and protein detection kits for cell culture, just to help your research career !