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Classification and function of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex

The respiratory chain is a continuous reaction system composed of a series of hydrogen donors and electron donors arranged in a certain order. It transfers the paired hydrogen atoms removed from metabolites to oxygen to produce water, and at the same time ATP is produced. In fact, the role of the respiratory chain represents the most basic function of mitochondria. The hydrogen and electron donors in the respiratory chain are carriers that can transmit hydrogen atoms or electrons. Since hydrogen atoms can be regarded as composed of H+ and e, Hydrogen donors are also electron donors. The essence of hydrogen donors and electron donors are enzymes, coenzymes, prosthetic groups or cofactors. All the prosthetic groups for electron transfer in the…

2021-11-26 169 views

Master key for cell proliferation detection

There are many methods to detect cell proliferation, such as MTT, CCK8, BrdU, etc. Today, I would like to recommend a more general and convenient method for everyone. Cell proliferation is a process of increasing the number of cells by means of cell division, which will produce many important changes, including the synthesis of DNA, the increase of cell metabolism, the expression of proliferation-specific proteins and so on. After continuous optimization and improvement of EdU method, no denaturation step, maintaining the integrity of cell morphology and DNA, it is recognized as the most direct and accurate method to detect cell proliferation.The process of cell proliferation is accompanied by the increase of cell metabolic activity. CCK-8 method is based on the…

2021-11-22 79 views

Abbkine takes you to understand apoptosis detection!

Apoptosis:Apoptosis refers to the autonomous and orderly death of cells controlled by genes in order to maintain the stability of the internal environment. Apoptosis is not a passive process, but an active process, which involves the activation, expression and regulation of a series of genes. It is not a phenomenon of self-injury under pathological conditions, but a death process that strives for better adaptation to the living environment. Common methods for detection of apoptosis: Detection method example Annexin V detection Annexin V/PI double staining Mitochondrial membrane potential-dependent dye JC-1 DNA consolidation and fragmentation TUNEL detection Active caspase detection Caspase 3 Cytochrome C release cytochrome c Among them, the most commonly used methods are: 1.Detection of Annexin V: Annexin V/PI double staining…

2021-11-12 165 views

The Role of PCNA in Cell Proliferation

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein is one of the central molecules responsible for decisions of life and death of the cell, and it is an important cell proliferation marker. In addition, the evaluation of cell proliferation activity in tumors provides useful information for assessing diagnosis, clinical behavior, and therapy in latest research flow. PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types. Picture Source: Journal of Cell Science (Powered by The Company of Biologists) In Abbkine primary antibody portfolio, I highly recommend ourPCNA Polyclonal Antibody, you can refer to the…

2021-11-12 211 views

The immunoprecipitation utility arranges the IP/Co-IP experiment well

IP experiments are the choice of proteomics research partners when we need to concentrate proteins in small amounts and perform a single assay. Co-IP is almost mandatory when we need to demonstrate protein-protein interactions. Using cell lysis samples, the interaction of intracellular proteins was proved and the molecular mechanism of the phenomenon was elucidated. The co-IP experiment is, in a nutshell, a little game of love-hunting in which antibodies capture proteins (antigens) and beads capture antibody-antigen complexes. Now, the IP/ co-IP experiment could eliminate many of the tedious steps involved in the love-making process by "binding" beads to antibody-antigen complexes. The editor takes you to sort out the steps and attention points of the traditional IP/ co-IP experiment and the…

2021-11-08 114 views

Abbkine handsel you the method of cell proliferation detection!

Cell proliferation refers to the increase in the number of cells caused by cell division, which is one of the important physiological functions of cells. Cell proliferation is the basis of organism growth, development, reproduction and heredity. The main characteristics of eukaryotic cell proliferation are the replication of genetic material and enhanced cell metabolism. Monitoring the growth rate of cell populations is necessary for the study of cell status, for example, uncontrolled cell proliferation can be detected in tumor tissues. According to the different characteristics and principles of cell proliferation, common cell proliferation/toxicity detection methods are: 1.Detection of proliferation protein activity Determine cell proliferation by detecting proteins related to cell proliferation. Ki67, PCNA, etc. are all proteins related to cell…

2021-10-27 161 views

What is IP (immunoprecipitation) / Co-IP (co-immunoprecipitation)?

1.What is IP (immunoprecipitation) / Co-IP (co-immunoprecipitation)? Immunoprecipitation is a method of protein purification. The antibody of the target protein is incubated with the cell extract to bind the antibody to the protein in the solution, and then the antibody / antigen complex is separated from the solution by the agarose beads coupled with protein A big G. finally, the target protein can be separated from the complex sample by SDS-PAGE, and the sample can be used for Western blotting analysis. Co-IP is an extension of immunoprecipitation and is mainly used to detect protein-protein interaction. 2.What are the advantages of co-immunoprecipitation? The target protein is pulled down in its natural state, thus reducing the influence of human factors; Complete protein…

2021-10-18 238 views

How to select a proper loading control antibody for Western Blot?

Loading control is also called internal control. In terms of mammalian cell expression, it generally refers to the protein encoded by housekeeping genes (Housekeeping Proteins). Their expression in various tissues and cells is relatively stable. It is often used as a reference while testing the expression level of a specific protein. In the Western Blotting experiment, it is proposed to do a internal control detection which can correct protein quantification and make up for the experiment error in loading samples procedure, ensuing the accuracy of the experimental results. There are two kinds of method about how to use loading control antibody in Western Blot. 1.Conjugated loading control antibody detection: Add HRP conjugated loading control antibody in secondary antibody incubation. 2.Normal…

2021-10-18 181 views

New arrival: Traffic explosion products hit hard, tailored for your experiment

The new products of Abbkine is coming! There are 5 new products in this issue. The details are as follows: BMU104-EN SuperKine™ Enhanced Antifade Mounting Medium 10 mL BMU105-EN SuperKine™ Protein Gel Fast Staining Solution (Coomassie Blue) 250 mL×2 KTD103-EN Cell Proliferation Assay Cocktail 1 kit KTD104-EN Universal IP/Co-IP Toolkit (Magnetic Beads) 20T KTD105-EN Universal IP/Co-IP Toolkit (Agarose) 20T Part one: SuperKine™ Enhanced Antifade Mounting Medium SuperKine™ Enhanced Antifade Mounting Medium is mainly composed of high-purity glycerol, which is used to mount fluorescent tissue and cell samples, it contains antifade quencher components, which can protect the entire visible spectrum and infrared spectrum, prevent fluorescence signal quenching, have a strong anti-fluorescence attenuation effect, and help keep the antigen and antibody in…

2021-09-30 244 views

AbbKine takes you a comprehensive understanding of cytokines

What are cytokines? Cytokine (CK) is composed of immune cells (such as monocytes, macrophages, T cells, B cells, NK cells, etc.) and certain non-immune cells (endothelial cells, epidermal cells, fibroblasts, etc.). A class of small molecular proteins (polypeptides or glycoproteins) that are synthesized and secreted by stimulation and have a wide range of biological activities. The function and characteristics of cytokines Function Cytokines have various functions such as regulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity, blood cell production, cell growth, and repairing damaged tissues. The research results of cytokines provide a scientific basis for clinical prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, especially the use of cytokine therapy Tumors, infections, hematopoietic dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, etc., have very broad application prospects. characteristics a.…

2021-09-23 227 views