|Product name||Rat Leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) ELISA Kit|
|Applications notes||This Rat Leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) ELISA Kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate HLA-DR in samples. An antibody specific for HLA-DR has been pre-coated onto a microplate. Standards and samples are pipetted into the wells and anyHLA-DR present is bound by the immobilized antibody. After removing any unbound substances, a biotin-conjugated antibody specific for HLA-DR is added to the wells. After washing, Streptavidin conjugated Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) is added to the wells. Following a wash to remove any unbound avidin-enzyme reagent, a substrate solution is added to the wells and color develops in proportion to the amount of HLA-DR bound in the initial step. The color development is stopped and the intensity of the color is measured.|
|SampleType||Cell culture supernatants, Other biological fluids, Plasma, Serum|
|Assay type||Sandwich ELISA (quantitative)|
|Assay duration||Multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay with a working time of 3-5 hours. It depends on the experience of the operation person.|
|Kit components||• Rat Leukocyte antigen-DR microplate
• Rat Leukocyte antigen-DR standard
• Rat Leukocyte antigen-DR detect antibody
• Standard diluent
• Assay buffer
• HRP substrate
• Stop solution
• Wash buffer
• Plate covers
|Features & Benefits||Rat Leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) ELISA Kit has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Rat HLA-DR. No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Rat HLA-DR and analogues was observed.|
|Calibration range||Please inquire|
|Limit of detection||Please inquire|
|Usage notes||• Do not mix components from different kit lots or use reagents beyond the kit expiration date.
• Allow all reagents to warm to room temperature for at least 30 minutes before opening.
• Pre-rinse the pipet tip with reagent, use fresh pipet tips for each sample, standard and reagent to avoid contamination.
• Unused wells must be kept desiccated at 4 °C in the sealed bag provided.
• Mix Thoroughly is very important for the result. It is recommended using low frequency oscillator or slight hand shaking every 10 minutes.
• It is recommended that all samples and standards be assayed in duplicate or triplicate.
|Storage instructions||The unopened kit should be stored at 2 - 8°C. After opening, please store refer to protocols.|
|Shipping||Gel pack with blue ice.|
|Precautions||The product listed herein is for research use only and is not intended for use in human or clinical diagnosis. Suggested applications of our products are not recommendations to use our products in violation of any patent or as a license. We cannot be responsible for patent infringements or other violations that may occur with the use of this product.|
|Background||The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell-surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of the immune system in humans. The HLA gene complex resides on a 3 Mbp stretch within chromosome 6p21. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, which means that they have many different alleles, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune system. The proteins encoded by certain genes are also known as antigens, as a result of their historic discovery as factors in organ transplants. Different classes have different functions: HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (A, B, and C) present peptides from inside the cell. For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of the virus to the surface of the cell so that the cell can be destroyed by the immune system. These peptides are produced from digested proteins that are broken down in the proteasomes. In general, these particular peptides are small polymers, about 9 amino acids in length. Foreign antigens presented by MHC class I attract killer T-cells (also called CD8 positive- or cytotoxic T-cells) that destroy cells. MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin, which unlike the HLA proteins is encoded by a gene on chromosome 15. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells, which in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. Self-antigens are suppressed by regulatory T cells. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system. HLAs have other roles. They are important in disease defense. They are the major cause of organ transplant rejections. They may protect against or fail to protect (if down-regulated by an infection) against cancers.Mutations in HLA may be linked to autoimmune disease (examples: type I diabetes, coeliac disease). HLA may also be related to people's perception of the odor of other people, and may be involved in mate selection, as at least one study found a lower-than-expected rate of HLA similarity between spouses in an isolated community. Aside from the genes encoding the 6 major antigen-presenting proteins, there are a large number of other genes, many involved in immune function, located on the HLA complex. Diversity of HLAs in the human population is one aspect of disease defense, and, as a result, the chance of two unrelated individuals with identical HLA molecules on all loci is very low. HLA genes have historically been identified as a result of the ability to successfully transplant organs between HLA-similar individuals.|
Fig.1. Rat Leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) Standard Curve.
Fig.2. Abbkine ELISA kit is series of sandwich ELISA to quantitate specific protein in samples.